Difference between revisions of "Japanese writing system"

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Line 15: Line 15:
 
| さ || し || す || せ || そ ||  || ざ || じ || ず || ぜ || ぞ ||  || || || || || ||  || しゃ || しゅ || しょ ||  || じゃ || じゅ || じょ ||  || || ||  
 
| さ || し || す || せ || そ ||  || ざ || じ || ず || ぜ || ぞ ||  || || || || || ||  || しゃ || しゅ || しょ ||  || じゃ || じゅ || じょ ||  || || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| '''ta''' || '''chi''' || '''tsu''' || '''te''' || '''to''' ||  || '''da''' || '''(ji)''' || '''(zu)''' || '''de''' || '''do''' ||  || || '''(tsu)''' || || || ||  || '''cha''' || '''chu''' || '''cho''' ||  || '''(ja)''' || '''(ju)''' || '''(jo)''' ||  || || ||  
+
| '''ta''' || '''chi''' || '''tsu''' || '''te''' || '''to''' ||  || '''da''' || '''(ji)''' || '''(zu)''' || '''de''' || '''do''' ||  || || || || || ||  || '''cha''' || '''chu''' || '''cho''' ||  || '''(ja)''' || '''(ju)''' || '''(jo)''' ||  || || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| た || ち || つ || て || と ||  || だ || ぢ || づ || で || ど ||  || || || || || ||  || ちゃ || ちゅ || ちょ ||  || ぢゃ || ぢゅ || ぢょ ||  || || ||  
+
| た || ち || つ || て || と ||  || だ || ぢ || づ || で || ど ||  || || || || || ||  || ちゃ || ちゅ || ちょ ||  || ぢゃ || ぢゅ || ぢょ ||  || || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''na''' || '''ni''' || '''nu''' || '''ne''' || '''no''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || '''nya''' || '''nyu''' || '''nyo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 
| '''na''' || '''ni''' || '''nu''' || '''ne''' || '''no''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || '''nya''' || '''nyu''' || '''nyo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
Line 43: Line 43:
 
| わ || ゐ || || ゑ || を ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 
| わ || ゐ || || ゑ || を ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| '''n''' || '''i.m.''' || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  ||  
+
| '''n''' || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  ||  
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
| ん || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
+
| ん || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Katakana==
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
| '''a''' || '''i''' || '''u''' || '''e''' || '''o''' ||  || '''(a)''' || '''(i)''' || '''(u)''' || '''(e)''' || '''(o)''' ||  || || || || || ||  || '''ya''' || '''yu''' || '''yo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ア || イ || ウ || エ || オ ||  || ァ || ィ || ゥ || ェ || ォ ||  || || || || || ||  || ャ || ュ || ョ ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''ka''' || '''ki''' || '''ku''' || '''ke''' || '''ko''' ||  || '''ga''' || '''gi''' || '''gu''' || '''ge''' || '''go''' ||  || '''(ka)''' || || || '''(ke)''' || ||  || '''kya''' || '''kyu''' || '''kyo''' ||  || '''gya''' || '''gyu''' || '''gyo''' ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| カ || キ || ク || ケ || コ ||  || ガ || ギ || グ || ゲ || ゴ ||  || ヵ || || || ヶ || ||  || キャ || キュ || キョ ||  || ギャ || ギュ || ギョ ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''sa''' || '''shi''' || '''su''' || '''se''' || '''so''' ||  || '''za''' || '''ji''' || '''zu''' || '''ze''' || '''zo''' ||  || || || || || ||  || '''sha''' || '''shu''' || '''sho''' ||  || '''ja''' || '''ju''' || '''jo''' ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| サ || シ || ス || セ || ソ ||  || ザ || ジ || ズ || ゼ || ゾ ||  || || || || || ||  || シャ || シュ || ショ ||  || ジャ || ジュ || ジョ ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''ta''' || '''chi''' || '''tsu''' || '''te''' || '''to''' ||  || '''da''' || '''(ji)''' || '''(zu)''' || '''de''' || '''do''' ||  || || || || || ||  || '''cha''' || '''chu''' || '''cho''' ||  || '''(ja)''' || '''(ju)''' || '''(jo)''' ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| タ || チ || ツ || テ || ト ||  || ダ || ヂ || ヅ || デ || ド ||  || || || || || ||  || チャ || チュ || チョ ||  || ヂャ || ヂュ || ヂョ ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''na''' || '''ni''' || '''nu''' || '''ne''' || '''no''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || '''nya''' || '''nyu''' || '''nyo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ナ || ニ || ヌ || ネ || ノ ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || ニャ || ニュ || ニョ ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''ha''' || '''hi''' || '''fu''' || '''he''' || '''ho''' ||  || '''ba''' || '''bi''' || '''bu''' || '''be''' || '''bo''' ||  || '''pa''' || '''pi''' || '''pu''' || '''pe''' || '''po''' ||  || '''hya''' || '''hyu''' || '''hyo''' ||  || '''bya''' || '''byu''' || '''byo''' ||  || '''pya''' || '''pyu''' || '''pyo'''
 +
|-
 +
| ハ || ヒ || フ || ヘ || ホ ||  || バ || ビ || ブ || ベ || ボ ||  || パ || ピ || プ || ペ || ポ ||  || ヒャ || ヒュ || ヒョ ||  || ビャ || ビュ || ビョ ||  || ピャ || ピュ || ピョ
 +
|-
 +
| '''ma''' || '''mi''' || '''mu''' || '''me''' || '''mo''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || '''mya''' || '''myu''' || '''myo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| マ || ミ || ム || メ || モ ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || ミャ || ミュ || ミョ ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''ya''' || || '''yu''' || || '''yo''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ヤ || || ユ || || ヨ ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''ra''' || '''ri''' || '''ru''' || '''re''' || '''ro''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || '''rya''' || '''ryu''' || '''ryo''' ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ラ || リ || ル || レ || ロ ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || リャ || リュ || リョ ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''wa''' || <strike>'''wi'''</strike> || || <strike>'''we'''</strike> || '''wo''' ||  || '''va''' || <strike>'''vi'''</strike> || '''vu''' || <strike>'''ve'''</strike> || '''vo''' ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ワ || ヰ || || ヱ || ヲ ||  || ヷ || ヸ || ヴ || ヹ || ヺ ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| '''n''' || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  ||
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| ン || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || || || ||  || || || ||  || || || ||  || || ||
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Typographic Symbols==
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Symbol !! System !! Explanation
 +
|-
 +
| 々 || Kanji || Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kanji). Can be used to make the word plural or alter the usage of the preceding word.
 +
|-
 +
| 仝 || Kanji || Repetition mark (duplicate two or more preceding kanji).
 +
|-
 +
| ゝ || Hiragana || Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
 +
|-
 +
| ゞ || Hiragana || Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana, and change the consonant).
 +
|-
 +
| 〻 || Hiragana || Vertical iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
 +
|-
 +
| ヽ || Katakana || Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
 +
|-
 +
| ヾ || Katakana || Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana, but change the consonant).
 +
|-
 +
| 〱 || Kana || Vertical repetition mark (duplicate two or more of the preceding kana).
 +
|-
 +
| 〲 || Kana || Vertical repetition mark (duplicate two or more of the preceding kana, and change the consonant).
 +
|-
 +
| 〳 || Kana || Top part of the vertical repetition mark (used when it need to be broken).
 +
|-
 +
| 〴 || Kana || Top part of the vertical repetition mark which alters the consonant (used when it need to be broken).
 +
|-
 +
| 〵 || Kana || Bottom part of both the vertical repetition top marks (used when it need to be broken).
 +
|-
 +
| っ || Hiragana || Double the length of the following consonant sound.
 +
|-
 +
| ッ || Katakana || Double the length of the following consonant sound.
 +
|-
 +
| ー || Katakana || Double the length of the preceding vowel sound. Can be used in hiragana, but usually replaced with the appropriate vowel kana.
 +
|-
 +
| ゛ || Kana || Modifies the consonant sound of the kana it is attached to.
 +
|-
 +
| ゜ || Kana || Modifies the consonant sound of the kana to a p sound.
 +
|-
 +
| 〃 || Kana || Ditto mark. Similar to English, used to repeat the previous listed item.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Punctuation===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Symbol !! System !! Explanation
 +
|-
 +
| 。 || All || Full stop, similar to English period, but only used when there are multiple sentences.
 +
|-
 +
| 、, , || All || Similar to English comma.
 +
|-
 +
| ・ || All || Used to break apart glyphs that would otherwise be confusing together. Also used to show where spaces occur in foreign words.
 +
|-
 +
|   || Kana || Full space. Used to separate words when writing exclusivly in kana.
 +
|-
 +
| ! || All || Adopted from Western use, used the same as an exclamation point.
 +
|-
 +
| ? || All || Adopted from Western use, used the same as a question mark.
 +
|-
 +
| ゠ || Katakana || The double hyphen is used to show where hyphens occur in foreign words.
 +
|-
 +
| = || Katakana || The double dash is used to show where dashes occur in foreign words.
 +
|-
 +
| 〜 || All || Use to show a span of time or distance, a subtitle (placed at start and end), country of origin (used only at end)
 +
|-
 +
| … || All || Used the same way an ellipses is used in English.
 +
|-
 +
| ‥ || All || Two-dot ellipses.
 +
|-
 +
| : || All || Adopted from Western use, used the same as a colon.
 +
|-
 +
| 「, 」 || All || Used to show the start and end of a quotation.
 +
|-
 +
| 『, 』 || All || Alternate quotes.
 +
|-
 +
| 〝, 〟 || All || Alternate quotes.
 +
|-
 +
| (, ) || All || Used in the same way English uses parenthesis.
 +
|-
 +
| 〔, 〕 || All || Tortoise shell brackets, used to show inserted notes.
 +
|-
 +
| 〘, 〙 || All || Inverted tortoise shell brackets.
 +
|-
 +
| [, ] || All || Used similar to brackets in English.
 +
|-
 +
| 〚, 〛 || All || Inverted square brackets.
 +
|-
 +
| {, } || All || Used similar to braces in English.
 +
|-
 +
| ⦅, ⦆ || All || Double parenthesis.
 +
|-
 +
| 〈, 〉 || All || Alternate brackets.
 +
|-
 +
| 《, 》 || All || Double alternate brackets.
 +
|-
 +
| 【, 】 || All || Lenticular brackets are used in headings.
 +
|-
 +
| 〖, 〗 || All || Inverted lenticular brackets.
 +
|-
 +
| ヶ || All || Used to indicate a period of months.
 +
|-
 +
| •, ◦, ﹅, ﹆ || All || Different forms of a side dot, used to add emphasis. Like italics in English.
 +
|-
 +
| ※ || All || Reference mark. Similar to how an asterisk is used in English.
 +
|-
 +
| * || All || Alternate reference mark, adopted from Western usage.
 +
|-
 +
| 〽 || All || Indicates the start of vocals in a song.
 +
|-
 +
| 〓 || All || Used when the correct glyph cannot be used due to it missing in the font.
 +
|-
 +
| ♪, ♫, ♬, ♩ || All || Used to show dialogue that is said in a playful, singsong manner.
 +
|-
 +
| 〇〇 || All || Used to censor inappropriate text.
 +
|-
 +
| 〒, 〶, 〠 || All || Used to indicate a postal office.
 +
|-
 +
| 〄 || All || Compliance with Japanese industrial standards.
 
|}
 
|}
  

Revision as of 14:44, 5 October 2020

The Japanese writing system is a combination of a logographic and syllabary system, and also officially borrows the characters from the Latin alphabet and the Arabic numerals.

Hiragana

a i u e o ya yu yo
ka ki ku ke ko ga gi gu ge go kya kyu kyo gya gyu gyo
きゃ きゅ きょ ぎゃ ぎゅ ぎょ
sa shi su se so za ji zu ze zo sha shu sho ja ju jo
しゃ しゅ しょ じゃ じゅ じょ
ta chi tsu te to da (ji) (zu) de do cha chu cho (ja) (ju) (jo)
ちゃ ちゅ ちょ ぢゃ ぢゅ ぢょ
na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo
にゃ にゅ にょ
ha hi fu he ho ba bi bu be bo pa pi pu pe po hya hyu hyo bya byu byo pya pyu pyo
ひゃ ひゅ ひょ びゃ びゅ びょ ぴゃ ぴゅ ぴょ
ma mi mu me mo mya myu myo
みゃ みゅ みょ
ya yu yo
ra ri ru re ro rya ryu ryo
りゃ りゅ りょ
wa wi we wo
n

Katakana

a i u e o (a) (i) (u) (e) (o) ya yu yo
ka ki ku ke ko ga gi gu ge go (ka) (ke) kya kyu kyo gya gyu gyo
キャ キュ キョ ギャ ギュ ギョ
sa shi su se so za ji zu ze zo sha shu sho ja ju jo
シャ シュ ショ ジャ ジュ ジョ
ta chi tsu te to da (ji) (zu) de do cha chu cho (ja) (ju) (jo)
チャ チュ チョ ヂャ ヂュ ヂョ
na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo
ニャ ニュ ニョ
ha hi fu he ho ba bi bu be bo pa pi pu pe po hya hyu hyo bya byu byo pya pyu pyo
ヒャ ヒュ ヒョ ビャ ビュ ビョ ピャ ピュ ピョ
ma mi mu me mo mya myu myo
ミャ ミュ ミョ
ya yu yo
ra ri ru re ro rya ryu ryo
リャ リュ リョ
wa wi we wo va vi vu ve vo
n

Typographic Symbols

Symbol System Explanation
Kanji Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kanji). Can be used to make the word plural or alter the usage of the preceding word.
Kanji Repetition mark (duplicate two or more preceding kanji).
Hiragana Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
Hiragana Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana, and change the consonant).
Hiragana Vertical iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
Katakana Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana).
Katakana Iteration mark (duplicate the preceding kana, but change the consonant).
Kana Vertical repetition mark (duplicate two or more of the preceding kana).
Kana Vertical repetition mark (duplicate two or more of the preceding kana, and change the consonant).
Kana Top part of the vertical repetition mark (used when it need to be broken).
Kana Top part of the vertical repetition mark which alters the consonant (used when it need to be broken).
Kana Bottom part of both the vertical repetition top marks (used when it need to be broken).
Hiragana Double the length of the following consonant sound.
Katakana Double the length of the following consonant sound.
Katakana Double the length of the preceding vowel sound. Can be used in hiragana, but usually replaced with the appropriate vowel kana.
Kana Modifies the consonant sound of the kana it is attached to.
Kana Modifies the consonant sound of the kana to a p sound.
Kana Ditto mark. Similar to English, used to repeat the previous listed item.

Punctuation=

Symbol System Explanation
All Full stop, similar to English period, but only used when there are multiple sentences.
、, , All Similar to English comma.
All Used to break apart glyphs that would otherwise be confusing together. Also used to show where spaces occur in foreign words.
  Kana Full space. Used to separate words when writing exclusivly in kana.
All Adopted from Western use, used the same as an exclamation point.
All Adopted from Western use, used the same as a question mark.
Katakana The double hyphen is used to show where hyphens occur in foreign words.
Katakana The double dash is used to show where dashes occur in foreign words.
All Use to show a span of time or distance, a subtitle (placed at start and end), country of origin (used only at end)
All Used the same way an ellipses is used in English.
All Two-dot ellipses.
All Adopted from Western use, used the same as a colon.
「, 」 All Used to show the start and end of a quotation.
『, 』 All Alternate quotes.
〝, 〟 All Alternate quotes.
(, ) All Used in the same way English uses parenthesis.
〔, 〕 All Tortoise shell brackets, used to show inserted notes.
〘, 〙 All Inverted tortoise shell brackets.
[, ] All Used similar to brackets in English.
〚, 〛 All Inverted square brackets.
{, } All Used similar to braces in English.
⦅, ⦆ All Double parenthesis.
〈, 〉 All Alternate brackets.
《, 》 All Double alternate brackets.
【, 】 All Lenticular brackets are used in headings.
〖, 〗 All Inverted lenticular brackets.
All Used to indicate a period of months.
•, ◦, ﹅, ﹆ All Different forms of a side dot, used to add emphasis. Like italics in English.
All Reference mark. Similar to how an asterisk is used in English.
All Alternate reference mark, adopted from Western usage.
All Indicates the start of vocals in a song.
All Used when the correct glyph cannot be used due to it missing in the font.
♪, ♫, ♬, ♩ All Used to show dialogue that is said in a playful, singsong manner.
〇〇 All Used to censor inappropriate text.
〒, 〶, 〠 All Used to indicate a postal office.
All Compliance with Japanese industrial standards.

Tools

Links

Link-Wikipedia.png