Difference between revisions of "Old testament"

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{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Hebrew (24) !! Protestant (39) !! Catholic (46) !! Eastern Orthodox (50)
+
! Hebrew (24)
 +
! Protestant (39)
 +
! Catholic (46)
 +
! Eastern Orthodox (50)
 +
! Oriental Orthodox (46)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]] || [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
+
| [[Book of Genesis|Bereishit]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 +
| [[Book of Genesis|Genesis]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]] || [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
+
| [[Book of Exodus|Shemot]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 +
| [[Book of Exodus|Exodus]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]] || [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
+
| [[Book of Leviticus|Vayikra]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 +
| [[Book of Leviticus|Leviticus]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] || [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
+
| [[Book of Numbers|Bamidbar]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 +
| [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]] || [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
+
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Devarim]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 +
| [[Book of Deuteronomy|Deuteronomy]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Joshua|Yehoshua]] || [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]] || [[Book of Joshua|Josue]] || [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
+
| [[Book of Joshua|Yehoshua]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Josue]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Iesous]]
 +
| [[Book of Joshua|Joshua]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]] || [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
+
| [[Book of Judges|Shofetim]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 +
| [[Book of Judges|Judges]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]] || [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
+
| [[Book of Ruth|Rut]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Shemuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]] || [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Shemuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Samuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|1 Kingdoms]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Samuel|Samuel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]] || [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]] || [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
+
 
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Samuel]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Samuel|2 Kingdoms]]
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Melakhim]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Kings]]
 +
|-
 +
 
 +
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]]
 +
| [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Chronicles|Divrei Hayamim]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
 +
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]]<br />(with [[Prayer of Manasseh]])
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Book of Jubilees|Jubilees]]
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Book of Enoch|Enoch]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Kings|Melakhim]] || [[Books of Kings|1 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|3 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|3 Kingdoms]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
 +
| [[Greek Esdras|2 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Kings|2 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|4 Kings]] || [[Books of Kings|4 Kingdoms]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra-Nehemiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|1 Izra]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Books of Chronicles|Divrei Hayamim]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Chronicles]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]] || [[Books of Chronicles|1 Paralipomenon]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
 +
 
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Books of Chronicles|2 Chronicles]] || [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]] || [[Books of Chronicles|2 Paraleipomenon]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Latin Esdras|Izra Sutuel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Greek Esdras|1 Esdras]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 +
| [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Ezra|Ezra-Nehemiah]] || [[Book of Ezra|Ezra]] || [[Book of Ezra|1 Esdras]] || rowspan="2" | [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 +
| [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]] || [[Book of Nehemiah|2 Esdras]]
+
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 +
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Tobit|Tobias]] || [[Book of Tobit|Tobit]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Judith|Judith]] || [[Book of Judith|Judith]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]]
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]] || [[Book of Esther|Esther]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
 +
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Books of Maccabees|1 Machabees]] || [[Books of Maccabees|1 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Meqabyan|Meqabyan]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Books of Maccabees|2 Machabees]] || [[Books of Maccabees|2 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
 +
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Books of Maccabees|3 Maccabees]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Latin Esdras|3 Esdras]]
+
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 +
| [[Book of Job|Job]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Books of Maccabees|4 Maccabees]]
+
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 +
| [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Job|Iyov]] || [[Book of Job|Job]] || [[Book of Job|Job]] || [[Book of Job|Job]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
 +
| (included with 2 Chronicles)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Psalms|Tehillim]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]] || [[Book of Psalms|Psalms]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
 +
| [[Book of Proverbs|Messalë]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || || [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| [[Book of Proverbs|Tägsas]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Proverbs|Mishlei]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]] || [[Book of Proverbs|Proverbs]]
+
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 +
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Qoheleth]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]] || [[Book of Ecclesiastes|Ecclesiastes]]
+
| [[Song of Solomon|Shir Hashirim]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
 +
| [[Song of Solomon|Song of Songs]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Song of Solomon|Shir Hashirim]] || [[Song of Solomon]] || [[Song of Solomon|Canticle of Canticles]] || [[Song of Solomon|Aisma Aismaton]]
+
|
 +
|
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
 +
| [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom of Solomon]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]] || [[Book of Wisdom|Wisdom]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 +
| [[Sirach]]
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Sirach|Ecclesiasticus]] || [[Sirach]]
+
| [[Book of Isaiah|Yeshayahu]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Isaiah|Yeshayahu]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaias]] || [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
+
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Yirmeyahu]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]]
 +
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
 +
| rowspan="4" | [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]<br />(with [[4 Baruch]])
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Jeremiah|Yirmeyahu]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremias]] || [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
+
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
| [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Lamentations|Eikhah]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]] || [[Book of Lamentations|Lamentations]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
| [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| || || rowspan="2" | [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]] || [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
 +
 
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
| || || [[Letter of Jeremiah|Letter of Jeremiah]]
+
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 +
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Ezekiel|Yekhezqel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezechiel]] || [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
+
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 +
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] || [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Osee]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 +
| [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="12" | [[Trei Asar]] || [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]] || [[Book of Hosea|Osee]] || [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 +
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Amos|Amos]] || [[Book of Amos|Amos]] || [[Book of Amos|Amos]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 +
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Joel|Joel]] || [[Book of Joel|Joel]] || [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 +
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]] || [[Book of Obadiah|Abdias]] || [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 +
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]] || [[Book of Jonah|Jonas]] || [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 +
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Micah|Micah]] || [[Book of Micah|Michaeas]] || [[Book of Micah|Micah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
 +
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahium]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]] || [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]] || [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 +
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]] || [[Book of Habakkuk|Sophonias]] || [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]] || [[Book of Zephaniah|Sophonias]] || [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]]
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 +
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]] || [[Book of Haggai|Aggaeus]] || [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]  
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 +
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]] || [[Book of Zechariah|Zacharias]] || [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
+
 
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 +
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]] || [[Book of Malachi|Malachias]] || [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
+
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
|  
 +
| [[Book of Josippon|Josippon]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 132: Line 379:
 
* [[Jannes and Jambres]]
 
* [[Jannes and Jambres]]
 
* [[Joseph and Aseneth]]
 
* [[Joseph and Aseneth]]
* [[Book of Jubilees]]
 
 
* [[Ladder of Jacob]]
 
* [[Ladder of Jacob]]
 
* [[Letter of Aristeas]]
 
* [[Letter of Aristeas]]

Revision as of 14:50, 10 October 2019

An old testament is an assortment of ancient Jewish books compiled by Christians and used as the first segment of their religious scriptures known collectively as the bible, of which the old testament accounts for about three quarters. The specific books in an old testament, what they should be titled, and how they should be presented differ among every major denomination of the religion, but each branch seems to agree that all of the content considered canon in the Jewish Tanakh should be included.

Christians refer to the these books as the old testament because they believe that the covenant between Yahweh and humankind was ended through the torture and execution of Jesus, and that, before he was killed, Jesus gave humans a new covenant which is described in the New Testament. Jews, however, do not believe that the original covenant between them and Yahweh has ended because, in the Torah, Yahweh says dozens of times that the covenant will never end, not even with the coming of the messiah, and Jews don't believe Jesus was the messiah anyway since he doesn't fit the prophecy in their scriptures.

Canon

Every major denomination of Christianity disagrees about which books should be considered canon to the Old Testament and what the books should be called. They also all disagree with the Jews on the order of presentation. Because of this, they each have different old testaments.

Hebrew (24) Protestant (39) Catholic (46) Eastern Orthodox (50) Oriental Orthodox (46)
Bereishit Genesis Genesis Genesis Genesis
Shemot Exodus Exodus Exodus Exodus
Vayikra Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus
Bamidbar Numbers Numbers Numbers Numbers
Devarim Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy
Yehoshua Joshua Josue Iesous Joshua
Shofetim Judges Judges Judges Judges
Rut Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth
Shemuel 1 Samuel 1 Kings 1 Kingdoms Samuel
2 Samuel 2 Kings 2 Kingdoms
Melakhim 1 Kings 3 Kings 3 Kingdoms Kings
2 Kings 4 Kings 4 Kingdoms
Divrei Hayamim 1 Chronicles 1 Paralipomenon 1 Paralipomenon 1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Paraleipomenon 2 Chronicles
(with Prayer of Manasseh)
Jubilees
Enoch
1 Esdras 2 Izra
Ezra-Nehemiah Ezra 1 Esdras 2 Esdras 1 Izra
Nehemiah 2 Esdras


Izra Sutuel
Tobias Tobit Tobit
Judith Judith Judith
Esther Esther Esther Esther Esther
1 Machabees 1 Maccabees
2 Machabees 2 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
Meqabyan
3 Esdras
4 Maccabees
Iyov Job Job Job Job
Tehillim Psalms Psalms Psalms Psalms
Prayer of Manasseh (included with 2 Chronicles)
Mishlei Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Messalë
Tägsas
Qoheleth Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes
Shir Hashirim Song of Solomon Canticle of Canticles Aisma Aismaton Song of Songs
Wisdom Wisdom Wisdom of Solomon
Ecclesiasticus Sirach Sirach
Yeshayahu Isaiah Isaias Isaiah Isaiah
Yirmeyahu Jeremiah Jeremias Jeremiah Jeremiah
(with 4 Baruch)
Eikhah Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations
Baruch Baruch
Letter of Jeremiah


Yekhezqel Ezekiel Ezechiel Ezekiel Ezekiel
Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel Daniel
Trei Asar Hosea Osee Hosea Hosea
Amos Amos Amos Amos
Joel Joel Joel Joel
Obadiah Abdias Obadiah Obadiah
Jonah Jonas Jonah Jonah
Micah Michaeas Micah Micah
Nahum Nahum Nahum Nahium
Habakkuk Sophonias Habakkuk Habakkuk
Zephaniah Sophonias Zephaniah Zephaniah
Haggai Aggaeus Haggai Haggai
Zechariah Zacharias Zechariah Zechariah
Malachi Malachias Malachi Malachi
Josippon

Additional Writings

The following books are considered apocryphal or pseudographical by all major denominations of Christianity and Judaism.

Capitalization

I do not capitalize "old testament" unless I'm referring to a specific version like the Codex Alexandrinus Old Testament. I do this, not out of disrespect, but in accordance with the conventions of English usage. Because every major Christian denomination has their own old testament, you're not reading the Old Testament, but rather an old testament. In much the same way, "encyclopedia" is not capitalized because it is a category of book, but "Encyclopedia Britannica" is capitalized because it is a specific book in the category of encyclopedias.

For the same reason, I do not capitalize "bible," however, I do capitalize "New Testament" since there is effectively only one across Christianity. I also capitalize the individual books included in the compilations; there is variation, but not enough to warrant calling them a category rather than a specific book.

Criticisms

Canon

Christians have been arguing for 2,000 years (and Jews for centuries earlier) over which writings should be considered canon, and they continue to disagree to this day. If Yahweh wanted a specific canon, why didn't he reveal it to everyone everywhere? Why allow for ambiguity or debate to decide which writings are endorsed by Yahweh? Do any of them have the correct canon, and, if so, are all other denominations guilty of blasphemy for using the wrong canon? Did they fail as Christians because their bible contained books that taught them to behave differently than later Christians?

Authorship

There is much conjecture and debate about the authors of the books in the old testament canon. In most of the books, the author doesn't identify himself, and historians believe that the majority of the books are not written by either the traditionally accepted authors or the the authors named in the books.

Content

We should expect books inspired by a god to be rife with deep philosophical wisdom, full of inexplicable insight on the very foundations of the universe, and written in the most interesting way possible, but the actual content of the books of the old testament is unimpressive. Large sections of the book are dedicated to pointless lineages, bizarre animal sacrifice rituals, and long lists of strange taboos. Many stories are written multiple times in contradicting ways. Rather than provide deep wisdom, science, or enlightened morality, the authors speak of conventional wisdom of the time, describe science in basic and often flawed ways, promote slavery, encourage rape, and various other forms of barbarism. Rather than be written in an exciting manner, the book is so poorly written that most Christians who claim to believe it is the most important book ever still quickly lose interest and stop reading it.

Redaction

Most of the books of the old testament show signs of redaction, some to a staggering degree. The Torah is so disjointed that historians have proposed various solutions like the Documentary Hypothesis to account for it. None of the earliest surviving manuscripts match each other perfectly, so there are a large number of sentences where we can't say with certainty what the original wrote.

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