The Zapper is a light gun, a video game controller developed by Nintendo for use with the NES, and was first sold in the USA in October 1985. It was based on the earlier light gun developed for the Famicom originally sold on 1984-02-18 in Japan which was named simply ガン [Gan] "Gun," and was part of the 光線銃シリーズ [Kosen Ju Shirizu] "Light Gun Series". The Famicon Gun itself was a home version of Nintendo's earlier light gun arcade game and light gun bars. The Zapper underwent a color transformation shortly after its American debut to make it more orange, no doubt to make it compliant with stricter US toy gun laws. Meanwhile, the Japanese light gun looked far more like a realistic revolver and even came with a belt holster. A special light gun using identical technology was available for the VS. System and PlayChoice-10.
Because my brother an I got a later NES Action set (around 1988), it came with the orange-colored Zapper. I do remember enjoying the game Duck Hunt for awhile, my father especially enjoyed shooting clay pigeons in Duck Hunt, but, over all, I found the Zapper and it's games to be pretty lame. My brother ended up cutting the cord off the gun and using it for a toy gun.
Many years later, when playing with the debugger controls of an NES emulator, I found out how the Zapper works, and it's a pretty interesting feat of technology. You've probably noticed that when the trigger is pulled, the game turns the screen momentarily black. But you must look very carefully to see that there is also a white box where a target can be hit. For this brief flash, the light gun senses the light levels in the direction which it is pointed. If it encounters a bright area surrounded by a black field, the gun tells the game to score a hit on that target. To keep track of multiple targets, the game flashes once for each target maintaining the order internally to score hits properly. In order for this to work, the Nintendo engineers who designed the Zapper had to make sure the flashes on the television were perfectly in sync with the Zapper's light sensor. This works just fine on CRTs, but later flat screen televisions had a slight delay which prevents old style light guns from working.
I own an original gray-model Zapper.
- The Zapper looks pretty cool. It has a nice shape and both color patterns are stylish.
- The designers wisely made the gun so that it checked for a specific light pattern rather than just a bright light. This made it much harder to "cheat" by aiming the gun at a light bulb like older light gun models.
- Surprisingly, even after Nintendo had essentially given up on light gun games, third-party companies continued to make them.
- Nintendo didn't push the gun very hard. They initially only made three games for it, Wild Gunman, Duck Hunt, and Hogan's Alley. Shortly after the US release of the Zapper, Gumshoe was released in the US only, and a fifth and final US-only game, Barker Bill's Trick Shooting, was released in 1990. All other games were made by third party developers, and many of them allowed the player to use a regular controller instead.
- Nearly all of the games which utilize the zapper are pretty awful.
- youtube.com/watch?v=gVgWaIAiOBY - Boundary Break.
The following list is every game released for the NES which can utilize the Zapper. In order to accommodate customers who didn't own a Zapper, several games also allowed the player to use a regular controller by displaying a crosshair on the screen and having the D-pad move it.
|3-In-1 Super Gun||19??-??-??||Yes||No|
|The Adventures of Bayou Billy||1988-08-12||No||Yes|
|Barker Bill's Trick Shooting||1990-08-??||Yes||Yes|
|Day Dreamin' Davey||1992-06-??||No||Yes|
|Gotcha! The Sport!||1987-11-??||Yes||Yes|
|The Lone Ranger||1991-08-??||No||Yes|
|Super Russian Roulette||????-??-??||Yes||No|
|To the Earth||1989-11-??||Yes||Yes|
|Track & Field II||1988-09-16||No||Yes|